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高度なEメール脅威に対するマクラーレン・レーシングの対策

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05
2021年1月
05
2021年1月
Faced with sophisticated phishing attacks targeting their C-suite, McLaren turned to AI to stop advanced email threats that outsmarted their legacy security tools. This blog uncovers an attack that slipped through their gateway but was neutralized by Darktrace/Email.

チームのEメール受信箱をセキュアにすることはマクラーレン・レーシングにおいて長い間大きな課題でした。COVID-19以前から、私達のワークフォースは非常に分散していました。過去30年間、世界中のレーシングコースにおいて、1週間おきにリモートオフィスをセットアップしていたも同然です。そのため、人々がきわめて高い割合でEメールを使い、また必ずしも同じ場所にいない状態に慣れていました。

パートナーや主要なサプライヤーも含め、コラボレーションがチームにとっての鍵です。データの共有は毎日行われ、さまざまな方法が使われています。これらのデータには扱いに注意が必要な車の設計データや非公開のコースデータも含まれています。

チームを標的としたEメール攻撃はこの1〜2年でかなり高度化し、攻撃者は偽の支払い要求をしたり、知的財産にアクセスしようとしたりしていました。ソーシャルエンジニアリング攻撃がますます巧妙化するということは、こうした事態を防ぐためにさまざまなツールや手順を配備していても、依然として社内のユーザーはこれらのフィッシングメールやなりすましメールに引っかかるということを意味します。

昨年、当社ではDarktraceのImmune SystemをEメールシステムにも適用拡大し、現在はインテリジェントなAIセキュリティソリューションによりあらゆるMicrosoft 365ユーザーの「生活パターン」を理解させ、攻撃を特定できるようになりました。Darktraceにより、セキュリティチームは従来型防御をすり抜けた攻撃に対して遡及的に対応するのではなく、最も高度なEメール脅威にも先行して対処できるようになりました。

攻撃を見つけるための従業員トレーニング

以前は脅威インテリジェンスフィードや悪意あるアドレス、ドメインおよびURLをブロックする従来型のセキュリティツールを使用していましたが、少数のフィッシングメールはどうしてもユーザーの受信箱まで到達することが避けられませんでした。通常、これらのEメールは周到に準備し高度にコンテキスト化されたもので、受信者に合わせて作成され、場合によっては本物のメールと区別がつかないようなものでした。従業員に対して認識向上プログラムを実施しても、これらの悪意あるメールに対して一定の割合でユーザーが反応してしまい、アカウント乗っ取りや詐欺行為が発生していました。当時はセキュリティリソースがこれらのインシデントへの対応で手いっぱいとなり、マクラーレン・レーシングのセキュリティを積極的に強化する取り組みができていませんでした。

そこで多くのパートナー企業と協力して「サイバー攻撃認識向上週間」を実施し、自分達で作成した偽のフィッシング攻撃を行うことで従業員に対して攻撃をどうやって発見するかを教育しました。しかしこれらの教育プログラムは、リモートワークの割合が増えるにつれ、伝えることが難しくなっていきました。従業員の積極的な関与が常に重要であったため、セキュリティチームへのリソース負荷は大きくなりました。関係部署の責任者と協力してスプーフィングメールの特定を助けたり、ビジネスプロセスを構築するのに非常に長い時間をとられていたのです。

これは長く根気のいるプロセスであり、また、ますます巧妙化するEメール攻撃のかすかな兆候の発見を従業員に期待することは困難です。現代のEメール攻撃の高度化、それに費やされる研究、関連するソーシャルエンジニアリングのレベル、これらのことからフィッシング攻撃が人間と基本的な防御システムのどちらも突破してしまうことは避けられませんでした。

Cyber AIの活用

パートナーであるDarktraceと協力し、私達は彼らのEメールセキュリティテクノロジーであるDarktrace/Email を導入し、一緒にインストールと設定を行いました。そしてその効果は数日で確認できました。自動対処により、ユーザーから報告されるフィッシングメールの数は次第にそして大幅に減り、Darktrace Emailのアクションを定期的にレビューすることによってそれまで気づいていなかった数多くのフィッシング攻撃を発見するに至りました。

Darktraceのアクションはビジネスのコンテキストを考慮して実行され、最後の手段としてのみメールの保留を行い(当社の環境では1%未満)、膨大な偽陽性を発生させるのではなく本当に悪意あるメールのみを捕捉しました。また、これらのアクションは的を絞り程度に見合ったもので、メールをゴミ箱に移動する、あるいは添付ファイルを変換したりリンクをロックするなどのさまざまな種類があり、私達が必要とする柔軟性がありました。

Darktrace Email が継続的に学習し高度なEメール攻撃を阻止してくれたため、セキュリティチームは圧力から解放され、ビジネスの新しい取り組みをサポートしたり、新たなイノベーションへの協力などに時間を使うことができるようにありました。

Cレベルの役員を狙った標的型の認証情報奪取攻撃を阻止

多くの組織同様、最も悪意あるメールの標的となるのは執行レベルの役員が多く、最近も当社の役員に対して送金のための書類に署名させようとするEメールをAntigena Email が検知しました。メールはDocuSignから送信されたように見え、‘Review Document’ というテキストの背後に悪意あるリンクが隠されていました。

図1:Eメールを特定したDarktrace/EmailのUI画面
図2:問題のEメールのスクリーンショット

この種のEメール攻撃では、リンクをクリックすると通常2つのシナリオが続きます。ユーザーが偽の(多くの場合、非常にもっともらしい)ログインページに誘導されて認証情報を入力させられる、あるいは文書自体は本物に見える請求書であるが、一つの重要な要素、すなわち口座情報が変更されている、というものです。会計チームやCFOは日常的にこうした攻撃にさらされていますが、このケースでは、攻撃者達は役員の認証情報を狙っていました。

この役員がクリックしてログインを試みていれば、それとは知らずに攻撃者に対して認証情報を送ってしまい、攻撃者はこの情報を使ってEメール受信箱あるいは他のSaaSアカウントから機微な情報を収集する、あるいはこのアカウントから悪意あるメールを送信して組織内にさらに侵入していたかもしれません。

Eメールはイモラサーキットでグランプリレースが行われていた週末に送られました。これはチーム全体が高いプレッシャーに晒されていた48時間でした。というのも金曜日の練習走行を行わずに新しいフォーマットでの走行を行ったため、緊張が一段と高まっていたのです。しかし、Darktrace Emailが警備を行っていたため、この送信者が新しい連絡先であることを認識しリンクを疑わしいと判断しました。Eメールに対して適切な問題認識を持ったDarktraceのAIはリンクをダブルロックし、このメールを役員のゴミ箱フォルダに移動しました。これらのことはすべて週末にオンコールで待機していたサイバーセキュリティチームを煩わせることなく行われました。

このような攻撃が日々やってくるなかで、本物と偽物の区別をマクラーレンの従業員に頼っていたのでは、あらゆる脅威から我々を現実的に保護することは不可能です。認証情報の奪取やアカウント乗っ取りが増える中で、たった1通のフィッシングメールの成功により洪水ゲートが開いてしまうのは時間の問題だと感じていました。しかしDarktrace Email導入により、コース上でもコース外でも強力なAIソリューションにより守られているという安心感を得ることができました。

INSIDE THE SOC
Darktrace cyber analysts are world-class experts in threat intelligence, threat hunting and incident response, and provide 24/7 SOC support to thousands of Darktrace customers around the globe. Inside the SOC is exclusively authored by these experts, providing analysis of cyber incidents and threat trends, based on real-world experience in the field.
AUTHOR
ABOUT ThE AUTHOR
Ed Green
Head of Commercial Technology, McLaren Racing

Ed Green works in the Architecture practice within the Information Technology function at McLaren Technology Group, as well as being responsible for the successful integration of their Technology Partners into the McLaren ecosystem. Ed joined McLaren in March 2018 after spending 5 years working for Block Solutions, a specialist network consultancy. In previous roles, he led the Consultancy division at a UK Solution Integrator operating across the public, enterprise, and commercial sectors. Ed has driven innovative engagements with organisations such as Harrods, intu, The Francis Crick Institute, and Barts Health NHS Trust. He has also spent seven years on the council at Great Ormond Street Hospital representing the views of patients at a Board level, and he continues his work at the Hospital School as a Governor and supports the school with STEM initiatives.

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Looking Beyond Secure Email Gateways with the Latest Innovations to Darktrace/Email

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09
Apr 2024

Organizations Should Demand More from their Email Security

In response to a more intricate threat landscape, organizations should view email security as a critical component of their defense-in-depth strategy, rather than defending the inbox alone with a traditional Secure Email Gateway (SEG). Organizations need more than a traditional gateway – that doubles, instead of replaces, the capabilities provided by native security vendor – and require an equally granular degree of analysis across all messaging, including inbound, outbound, and lateral mail, plus Teams messages.  

Darktrace/Email is the industry’s most advanced cloud email security, powered by Self-Learning AI. It combines AI techniques to exceed the accuracy and efficiency of leading security solutions, and is the only security built to elevate, not duplicate, native email security.  

With its largest update ever, Darktrace/Email introduces the following innovations, finally allowing security teams to look beyond secure email gateways with autonomous AI:

  • AI-augmented data loss prevention to stop the entire spectrum of outbound mail threats
  • an easy way to deploy DMARC quickly with AI
  • major enhancements to streamline SOC workflows and increase the detection of sophisticated phishing links
  • expansion of Darktrace’s leading AI prevention to lateral mail, account compromise and Microsoft Teams

What’s New with Darktrace/Email  

Data Loss Prevention  

Block the entire spectrum of outbound mail threats with advanced data loss prevention that builds on tags in native email to stop unknown, accidental, and malicious data loss

Darktrace understands normal at individual user, group and organization level with a proven AI that detects abnormal user behavior and dynamic content changes. Using this understanding, Darktrace/Email actions outbound emails to stop unknown, accidental and malicious data loss.  

Traditional DLP solutions only take into account classified data, which relies on the manual input of labelling each data piece, or creating rules to catch pattern matches that try to stop data of certain types leaving the organization. But in today’s world of constantly changing data, regular expression and fingerprinting detection are no longer enough.

  • Human error – Because it understands normal for every user, Darktrace/Email can recognize cases of misdirected emails. Even if the data is correctly labelled or insensitive, Darktrace recognizes when the context in which it is being sent could be a case of data loss and warns the user.  
  • Unclassified data – Whereas traditional DLP solutions can only take action on classified data, Darktrace analyzes the range of data that is either pending labels or can’t be labeled with typical capabilities due to its understanding of the content and context of every email.  
  • Insider threat – If a malicious actor has compromised an account, data exfiltration may still be attempted on encrypted, intellectual property, or other forms of unlabelled data to avoid detection. Darktrace analyses user behaviour to catch cases of unusual data exfiltration from individual accounts.

And classification efforts already in place aren’t wasted – Darktrace/Email extends Microsoft Purview policies and sensitivity labels to avoid duplicate workflows for the security team, combining the best of both approaches to ensure organizations maintain control and visibility over their data.

End User and Security Workflows

Achieve more than 60% improvement in the quality of end-user phishing reports and detection of sophisticated malicious weblinks1

Darktrace/Email improves end-user reporting from the ground up to save security team resource. Employees will always be on the front line of email security – while other solutions assume that end-user reporting is automatically of poor quality, Darktrace prioritizes improving users’ security awareness to increase the quality of end-user reporting from day one.  

Users are empowered to assess and report suspicious activity with contextual banners and Cyber AI Analyst generated narratives for potentially suspicious emails, resulting in 60% fewer benign emails reported.  

Out of the higher-quality emails that end up being reported, the next step is to reduce the amount of emails that reach the SOC. Darktrace/Email’s Mailbox Security Assistant automates their triage with secondary analysis combining additional behavioral signals – using x20 more metrics than previously – with advanced link analysis to detect 70% more sophisticated malicious phishing links.2 This directly alleviates the burden of manual triage for security analysts.

For the emails that are received by the SOC, Darktrace/Email uses automation to reduce time spent investigating per incident. With live inbox view, security teams gain access to a centralized platform that combines intuitive search capabilities, Cyber AI Analyst reports, and mobile application access. Analysts can take remediation actions from within Darktrace/Email, eliminating console hopping and accelerating incident response.

Darktrace takes a user-focused and business-centric approach to email security, in contrast to the attack-centric rules and signatures approach of secure email gateways

Microsoft Teams

Detect threats within your Teams environment such as account compromise, phishing, malware and data loss

Around 83% of Fortune 500 companies rely on Microsoft Office products and services, particularly Teams and SharePoint.3

Darktrace now leverages the same behavioral AI techniques for Microsoft customers across 365 and Teams, allowing organizations to detect threats and signals of account compromise within their Teams environment including social engineering, malware and data loss.  

The primary use case for Microsoft Teams protection is as a potential entry vector. While messaging has traditionally been internal only, as organizations open up it is becoming an entry vector which needs to be treated with the same level of caution as email. That’s why we’re bringing our proven AI approach to Microsoft Teams, that understands the user behind the message.  

Anomalous messaging behavior is also a highly relevant indicator of whether a user has been compromised. Unlike other solutions that analyze Microsoft Teams content which focus on payloads, Darktrace goes beyond basic link and sandbox analysis and looks at actual user behavior from both a content and context perspective. This linguistic understanding isn’t bound by the requirement to match a signature to a malicious payload, rather it looks at the context in which the message has been delivered. From this analysis, Darktrace can spot the early symptoms of account compromise such as early-stage social engineering before a payload is delivered.

Lateral Mail Analysis

Detect and respond to internal mailflow with multi-layered AI to prevent account takeover, lateral phishing and data leaks

The industry’s most robust account takeover protection now prevents lateral mail account compromise. Darktrace has always looked at internal mail to inform inbound and outbound decisions, but will now elevate suspicious lateral mail behaviour using the same AI techniques for inbound, outbound and Teams analysis.

Darktrace integrates signals from across the entire mailflow and communication patterns to determine symptoms of account compromise, now including lateral mailflow

Unlike other solutions which only analyze payloads, Darktrace analyzes a whole range of signals to catch lateral movement before a payload is delivered. Contributing yet another layer to the AI behavioral profile for each user, security teams can now use signals from lateral mail to spot the early symptoms of account takeover and take autonomous actions to prevent further compromise.

DMARC

Gain in-depth visibility and control of 3rd parties using your domain with an industry-first AI-assisted DMARC

Darktrace has created the easiest path to brand protection and compliance with the new Darktrace/DMARC. This new capability continuously stops spoofing and phishing from the enterprise domain, while automatically enhancing email security and reducing the attack surface.

Darktrace/DMARC helps to upskill businesses by providing step by step guidance and automated record suggestions provide a clear, efficient road to enforcement. It allows organizations to quickly achieve compliance with requirements from Google, Yahoo, and others, to ensure that their emails are reaching mailboxes.  

Meanwhile, Darktrace/DMARC helps to reduce the overall attack surface by providing visibility over shadow-IT and third-party vendors sending on behalf of an organization’s brand, while informing recipients when emails from their domains are sent from un-authenticated DMARC source.

Darktrace/DMARC integrates with the wider Darktrace product platform, sharing insights to help further secure your business across Email Attack Path and Attack Surface management.

結論

To learn more about the new innovations to Darktrace/Email download the solution brief here.

All of the new updates to Darktrace/Email sit within the new Darktrace ActiveAI Security Platform, creating a feedback loop between email security and the rest of the digital estate for better protection. Click to read more about the Darktrace ActiveAI Security Platform or to hear about the latest innovations to Darktrace/OT, the most comprehensive prevention, detection, and response solution purpose built for critical infrastructures.  

Learn about the intersection of cyber and AI by downloading the State of AI Cyber Security 2024 report to discover global findings that may surprise you, insights from security leaders, and recommendations for addressing today’s top challenges that you may face, too.

参考文献

[1] Internal Darktrace Research

[2] Internal Darktrace Research

[3] Essential Microsoft Office Statistics in 2024

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Carlos Gray
Product Manager

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Managing Risk Beyond CVE Scores With the Latest Innovations to Darktrace/OT

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09
Apr 2024

Identifying Cyber Risk in Industrial Organizations

Compromised OT devices in ICS and SCADA environments pose significant physical risks, even endangering lives. However, identifying CVEs in the multitude of complex OT devices is labor-intensive and time-consuming, draining valuable resources.

Even after identifying a vulnerability, implementing a patch presents its own challenges limited maintenance windows and the need for uninterrupted operations strain IT and OT teams often leading organizations to prioritize availability over security leading vulnerabilities remaining unresolved for over 5 years on average. (1)

Darktrace’s New Innovation

Darktrace is an industry leader in cybersecurity with 10+ years of experience securing OT environments where we take a fundamentally different approach using Self-Learning AI to enhance threat detection and response.

Continuing to combat the expanding threat landscape, Darktrace is excited to announce new capabilities that enable a contextualized and proactive approach to managing cyber risk at industrial organizations.

Today we launch an innovation to our OT Cybersecurity solution, Darktrace/OT, that will add a layer of proactivity, enabling a comprehensive approach to risk management. This industry leading innovation for Darktrace/OT moves beyond CVE scores to redefine vulnerability management for critical infrastructure, tackling the full breadth of risks not limited by traditional controls.  

Darktrace/OT is the only OT security solution with comprehensive Risk Management which includes:

  • Contextualized risk analysis unique to your organization
  • The most realistic evaluation and prioritization of OT risk
  • Effectively mitigate risk across your OT infrastructure, with and without patching.
  • The only OT security solution that evaluates your defenses against Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) Groups.

The most comprehensive prevention, detection, and response solution purpose built for Critical Infrastructures

Darktrace’s Self-Learning AI technology is a cutting-edge innovation that implements real time prevention, detection, response, and recovery for operational technologies and enables a fundamental shift from the traditional approach to cyber defense by learning a ‘pattern of life’ for every network, device, and user.  

Rather than relying on knowledge of past attacks, AI technology learns what is ‘normal’ for its environment, discovering previously unknown threats by detecting subtle shifts in behavior. Through identifying these unexpected anomalies, security teams can investigate novel attacks, discover blind spots, have live time visibility across all their physical and digital assets, and reduce time to detect, respond to, and triage security events.  

  • Achieve greater visibility of OT and IT devices across all levels of the Purdue Model.
  • The industry's only OT security to scale threat detection and response, with a 92% time saving from triage to recovery.  
  • The only OT focused security solution to provide bespoke Risk Management.

To learn more about how Darktrace/OT approaches unique use cases for industrial organizations visit the Darktrace/OT Webpage or join us LIVE at a city near you.

Read more below to discover how new innovations to Darktrace/OT are bringing a new, contextualized approach to Risk Management for Industrial organizations.

For more information on the entire Darktrace/OT Solution read our solution brief here.

Darktrace/OT and New Risk Management

Risk Identification

Leveraging the visibility of Darktrace/OT which identifies individual systems throughout the Purdue Model and the relationship between them, Darktrace/OT identifies high-risk CVEs and presents potential attack routes that go beyond techniques requiring a known exploit, such as misuse of legitimate services. Each attack path will have a mathematical evaluation of difficulty and impact from initial access to the high value objectives.  

Together this gives comprehensive coverage over your real and potential risks from both an attacker and known vulnerability perspectives. OT attack paths as seen here even leverage insights between the industrial and corporate communications to reveal ways threat actors may take advantage of IT-OT convergence. This revelation of imperceptible risks fills gaps in traditional risk analysis like remote access and insider threats.

Figure 1: Darktrace/OT visualizing the most critical attack paths at an organization
Figure 1: Darktrace/OT visualizing the most critical attack paths at an organization
Figure 2: A specific Attack Path identified by Darktrace/OT

Risk Prioritization

Darktrace/OT prioritizes remediations and mitigations based on difficulty and damage to your unique organization, using the established Attack Paths.

We ascertain the priorities that apply to your organization beyond pure theoretical damage answering questions like:

  • How difficult is a particular vulnerability to exploit considering the steps an attacker would require to reach it?
  • And, how significant would the impact be if it was exploited within this particular network?

This expanded approach to risk prioritization has a much more comprehensive evaluation of your organization's unique risk than has ever been possible before. Traditional approaches of ranking only known vulnerabilities with isolated scores using CVSS and exploitability metrics, often leaves gaps in IT-OT risks and is blind to legitimate service exploitation.

Figure 3: Darktrace/OT leverages its contextual understand of the organization’s network to prioritize remediation that will have the positive impact on the risk score

Darktrace provides mitigation strategies associated with each identified risk and the relevant impact it has on your overall risk posture, across all MITRE ATT&CK techniques.

What sets Darktrace apart is our ability to contextualize these mitigations within the broader business. When patching vulnerabilities directly isn’t possible, Darktrace identifies alternative actions that harden attack paths leading to critical assets. Hardening the surrounding attack path increases the difficulty and therefore reduces the likelihood and impact of a breach.

That means unpatched vulnerabilities and vulnerable devices aren’t left unprotected. This also has an added bonus, those hardening techniques work for all devices in that network segment, so apply one change, secure many.

Figure 4: Darktrace prioritizes mitigation reducing accessibility of vulnerability and the overall risk score when patches aren’t available

Communicate Board Level Risk with APT Threat Mapping

Darktrace/OT bridges theory and practice as the only security solution that maps MITRE techniques, frequently used by APT Groups, onto AI-assessed critical Attack Paths. This unique solution provides unparalleled insights including sector and location intelligence, possible operating platforms, common techniques, exploited CVEs, and the number of potential devices affected in your environment, supporting holistic risk assessment and proactive defense measures.

Ultimately, this becomes a power dashboard to communicate board level risk, using both metric based evidence and industry standard threat mapping.

結論

Darktrace/OT is part of the Darktrace ActiveAI Security Platform a native, holistic, AI-driven platform built on over ten years of AI research. It helps security teams shift to more a productive mode, finding the known and the unknown attacks and transforming the SOC with the various Darktrace products to drive efficiency gains. It does this across the whole incident lifecycle to lower risk, reduce time spent on active incidents, and drive return on investment.

Discover more about Darktrace's ever-strengthening platform with the upcoming changes coming to our Darktrace/Email product and other launch day blogs.

Join Darktrace LIVE half-day event to understand the reality versus the hype surrounding AI and how to achieve cyber resilience.

Learn about the intersection of cyber and AI by downloading the State of AI Cyber Security 2024 report to discover global findings that may surprise you, insights from security leaders, and recommendations for addressing today’s top challenges that you may face, too.  

参考文献

1. https://research-information.bris.ac.uk/ws/portalfiles/portal/313646831/Catch_Me_if_You_Can.pdf

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Mitchell Bezzina
VP, Product and Solutions Marketing
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