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2024年のサイバーセキュリティ 7つの予測

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13
Feb 2024
13
Feb 2024
このブログでは、2024年にサイバー脅威とサイバー防御の現場で見られると予想される7つの主要トレンドを紹介します。

2024年のサイバー脅威予測

2023年後半にDarktraceの顧客基盤に影響を与えた観察された脅威と傾向を分析した後、Darktrace脅威調査チームは一連の予測を行いました。これらの評価は、2024年にDarktraceの顧客とより広い脅威の状況に影響を与えると予想される脅威をハイライトしています。  

1. 初期アクセスブローカー型マルウェア、特にローダー型マルウェアは、顕著な脅威となる可能性が高い  

ローダー、情報窃取リモートアクセス型トロイの木馬(RAT)、ダウンローダーなどの初期アクセス型マルウェアは、特にその多くが相互運用可能でカスタマイズ可能なMaaS(Malware-as-a-Service)ツールであることを考慮すると、ほとんどの組織にとって最も関連性の高い脅威であり続けるでしょう。  

この種のマルウェアは、多くの場合、脅威アクターが標的ネットワークを侵害するための入り口として機能し、その後、より深刻な攻撃を仕掛けてくることが多いです。サイバー犯罪者の予備軍は、技術的な専門知識を必要とすることなく、これらのマルウェアを購入し、展開することができるようになったのです。 

2. インフラの複雑さはSaaS攻撃を増加させ、クラウド環境を脆弱にする

事業運営におけるSaaSソリューションやプラットフォームへの依存度が高まっていることに加え、攻撃対象がかつてないほど拡大していることから、攻撃者は特権アカウントへの不正アクセスを許可するアカウント乗っ取りによって、組織のクラウド環境を標的にし続ける可能性が高いです。こうしたアカウントの乗っ取りは、データの流出やフィッシングキャンペーンの開始など、さまざまな悪意のある行為に悪用される可能性があります。  

組織にとって、多要素認証(MFA)、クレデンシャルの使用状況の定期的な監視、厳格なアクセス制御を含むセキュリティ戦略によってSaaS環境を強化するだけでなく、異常検知能力を駆使してSaaSセキュリティを強化することが最も重要です。

3. ランサムウェアの蔓延と進化が急増する

Darktrace の脅威調査チームは、Ransomware-as-a-Service(RaaS)攻撃が急増し、従来のランサムウェアから移行すると予測しています。2023年に観測されたRaaSの急増は、ランサムウェア自体がますますアクセスしやすくなり、脅威アクターの参入障壁が低くなっていることを証明しています。この急増はまた、現在の脅威の状況において、ランサムウェアの運営者にとってRaaSがいかに有利であるかを示しており、RaaSの増加をさらに後押ししています。  

この動きは、従来の暗号化中心のランサムウェアの手口から、より洗練された高度な恐喝手法へと軸足を移すことと一致する可能性が高いです。悪意のあるアクターは、身代金のために標的のデータを暗号化することだけに頼るのではなく、機密データを暗号化するだけでなく、身代金の要求が満たされない限り、盗んだデータを漏えいさせたり、売却したりすると脅迫するなど、二重、三重の恐喝戦略を採用することが予想されます。  

4. 脅威の主体は今後も、環境寄生型(LOTL)テクニックに依存し続ける

セキュリティツールの高度化が進み、AI技術の採用が業界で進む中、脅威アクターは環境寄生型(LOTL)テクニックにますます重点を置くようになっています。2023年に発見された脆弱性の数が非常に多いことは、信頼できる組織の仕組みやインフラを侵害し、ネットワークへの足がかりを得るという脅威アクターの根強いニーズを浮き彫りにしています。受信箱への侵入は依然として流行していますが、エッジインフラストラクチャの悪用は、以前はエンドポイントに焦点を当てた攻撃であったのに比べて明らかに拡大しています。

エンドポイント回避技術の普及と、ネイティブプログラムを利用する手口の割合の高さを考えると、脅威アクターは、従来の検知を回避する未確認の悪意あるプログラムに依存するのではなく、新しい技術や脆弱性を利用してでも、環境寄生に頼ることになるでしょう。

5. "as-a-Service" 市場は、多段階の侵害増加に寄与するだろう

as-a-Serviceマーケットプレイスの増加に伴い、組織は、マルウェアの1つの系統が情報を盗み出し、そのデータがさらなる脅威アクターに売却されたり、第2、第3段階のマルウェアやランサムウェアに利用されたりするような、多段階の侵害に直面する可能性が高まっています。  

このトレンドは、初期アクセスブローカーのコンセプトを基盤としていますが、基本的なブラウザスクレイピングとデータハーベスティングを利用し、侵害のプロセスを通じて可能な限り多くの利益を上げることを目的としています。その結果、セキュリティチームは、インシデント対応中に複数の悪意のあるツールやマルウェアの系統、あるいは多機能マルウェアを観察することになり、攻撃サイクルやキルチェーンは、直線的ではなく、より抽象的な活動の連鎖へと変化することになるでしょう。このため、セキュリティチームが非対称的な脅威の一歩先を行くためには、アノマリーアプローチを適用することがこれまで以上に不可欠になります。  

6. 生成AIの進化により、攻撃者は言語の壁を越えてフィッシングを行うようになる

古典的なフィッシング詐欺は、できるだけ多くの受信トレイをターゲットにし、たとえメールにスペルミスや文法ミスがあったとしても、何人かのユーザーが餌にかかることを期待するという、数で勝負するものでした。現在では、生成AIが参入障壁を減らしているため、悪意のあるアクターは英語を話せなくても説得力のあるフィッシングメールを作成することが可能です。  

2024年には、これが他の言語や地域にも拡大すると予想しています。例えば、アジアの多くの国では、まだフィッシングによる大きな影響は受けていません。しかし、生成AIは発展を続けており、データ入力の改善によって出力が向上しています。より多くのフィッシングメールが、より洗練された様々な言語で生成されるようになると考えられます。    

7. AI規制とデータプライバシー規則はAIの導入を阻害する

AI regulation, like the European Union’s AI Act, is starting to be implemented around the world. As policies continue to come out about AI and data privacy, practical and pragmatic AI adoption becomes more complex.  

企業は、自社の技術スタックに導入しているAIをもう一度見直し、あるツールが突然、目的に合わなくなり非推奨になったり、承認が受けられなくなったりした場合に何が起こるかを検討しなければなりません。また、多くの企業は、コンプライアンス登録機関の開発に基づいて、通常のものとはまったく異なるサプライチェーン評価を使用する必要もあります。このように複雑さが増すと、法規制が追いつこうと躍起になるため、企業は革新的なAIソリューションの採用に消極的になるかもしれません。  

観測された脅威の傾向と今後の予測について詳しくは「2023年後半の分析 年末脅威レポート」をご覧ください。

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Looking Beyond Secure Email Gateways with the Latest Innovations to Darktrace/Email

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09
Apr 2024

Organizations Should Demand More from their Email Security

In response to a more intricate threat landscape, organizations should view email security as a critical component of their defense-in-depth strategy, rather than defending the inbox alone with a traditional Secure Email Gateway (SEG). Organizations need more than a traditional gateway – that doubles, instead of replaces, the capabilities provided by native security vendor – and require an equally granular degree of analysis across all messaging, including inbound, outbound, and lateral mail, plus Teams messages.  

Darktrace/Email is the industry’s most advanced cloud email security, powered by Self-Learning AI. It combines AI techniques to exceed the accuracy and efficiency of leading security solutions, and is the only security built to elevate, not duplicate, native email security.  

With its largest update ever, Darktrace/Email introduces the following innovations, finally allowing security teams to look beyond secure email gateways with autonomous AI:

  • AI-augmented data loss prevention to stop the entire spectrum of outbound mail threats
  • an easy way to deploy DMARC quickly with AI
  • major enhancements to streamline SOC workflows and increase the detection of sophisticated phishing links
  • expansion of Darktrace’s leading AI prevention to lateral mail, account compromise and Microsoft Teams

What’s New with Darktrace/Email  

Data Loss Prevention  

Block the entire spectrum of outbound mail threats with advanced data loss prevention that builds on tags in native email to stop unknown, accidental, and malicious data loss

Darktrace understands normal at individual user, group and organization level with a proven AI that detects abnormal user behavior and dynamic content changes. Using this understanding, Darktrace/Email actions outbound emails to stop unknown, accidental and malicious data loss.  

Traditional DLP solutions only take into account classified data, which relies on the manual input of labelling each data piece, or creating rules to catch pattern matches that try to stop data of certain types leaving the organization. But in today’s world of constantly changing data, regular expression and fingerprinting detection are no longer enough.

  • Human error – Because it understands normal for every user, Darktrace/Email can recognize cases of misdirected emails. Even if the data is correctly labelled or insensitive, Darktrace recognizes when the context in which it is being sent could be a case of data loss and warns the user.  
  • Unclassified data – Whereas traditional DLP solutions can only take action on classified data, Darktrace analyzes the range of data that is either pending labels or can’t be labeled with typical capabilities due to its understanding of the content and context of every email.  
  • Insider threat – If a malicious actor has compromised an account, data exfiltration may still be attempted on encrypted, intellectual property, or other forms of unlabelled data to avoid detection. Darktrace analyses user behaviour to catch cases of unusual data exfiltration from individual accounts.

And classification efforts already in place aren’t wasted – Darktrace/Email extends Microsoft Purview policies and sensitivity labels to avoid duplicate workflows for the security team, combining the best of both approaches to ensure organizations maintain control and visibility over their data.

End User and Security Workflows

Achieve more than 60% improvement in the quality of end-user phishing reports and detection of sophisticated malicious weblinks1

Darktrace/Email improves end-user reporting from the ground up to save security team resource. Employees will always be on the front line of email security – while other solutions assume that end-user reporting is automatically of poor quality, Darktrace prioritizes improving users’ security awareness to increase the quality of end-user reporting from day one.  

Users are empowered to assess and report suspicious activity with contextual banners and Cyber AI Analyst generated narratives for potentially suspicious emails, resulting in 60% fewer benign emails reported.  

Out of the higher-quality emails that end up being reported, the next step is to reduce the amount of emails that reach the SOC. Darktrace/Email’s Mailbox Security Assistant automates their triage with secondary analysis combining additional behavioral signals – using x20 more metrics than previously – with advanced link analysis to detect 70% more sophisticated malicious phishing links.2 This directly alleviates the burden of manual triage for security analysts.

For the emails that are received by the SOC, Darktrace/Email uses automation to reduce time spent investigating per incident. With live inbox view, security teams gain access to a centralized platform that combines intuitive search capabilities, Cyber AI Analyst reports, and mobile application access. Analysts can take remediation actions from within Darktrace/Email, eliminating console hopping and accelerating incident response.

Darktrace takes a user-focused and business-centric approach to email security, in contrast to the attack-centric rules and signatures approach of secure email gateways

Microsoft Teams

Detect threats within your Teams environment such as account compromise, phishing, malware and data loss

Around 83% of Fortune 500 companies rely on Microsoft Office products and services, particularly Teams and SharePoint.3

Darktrace now leverages the same behavioral AI techniques for Microsoft customers across 365 and Teams, allowing organizations to detect threats and signals of account compromise within their Teams environment including social engineering, malware and data loss.  

The primary use case for Microsoft Teams protection is as a potential entry vector. While messaging has traditionally been internal only, as organizations open up it is becoming an entry vector which needs to be treated with the same level of caution as email. That’s why we’re bringing our proven AI approach to Microsoft Teams, that understands the user behind the message.  

Anomalous messaging behavior is also a highly relevant indicator of whether a user has been compromised. Unlike other solutions that analyze Microsoft Teams content which focus on payloads, Darktrace goes beyond basic link and sandbox analysis and looks at actual user behavior from both a content and context perspective. This linguistic understanding isn’t bound by the requirement to match a signature to a malicious payload, rather it looks at the context in which the message has been delivered. From this analysis, Darktrace can spot the early symptoms of account compromise such as early-stage social engineering before a payload is delivered.

Lateral Mail Analysis

Detect and respond to internal mailflow with multi-layered AI to prevent account takeover, lateral phishing and data leaks

The industry’s most robust account takeover protection now prevents lateral mail account compromise. Darktrace has always looked at internal mail to inform inbound and outbound decisions, but will now elevate suspicious lateral mail behaviour using the same AI techniques for inbound, outbound and Teams analysis.

Darktrace integrates signals from across the entire mailflow and communication patterns to determine symptoms of account compromise, now including lateral mailflow

Unlike other solutions which only analyze payloads, Darktrace analyzes a whole range of signals to catch lateral movement before a payload is delivered. Contributing yet another layer to the AI behavioral profile for each user, security teams can now use signals from lateral mail to spot the early symptoms of account takeover and take autonomous actions to prevent further compromise.

DMARC

Gain in-depth visibility and control of 3rd parties using your domain with an industry-first AI-assisted DMARC

Darktrace has created the easiest path to brand protection and compliance with the new Darktrace/DMARC. This new capability continuously stops spoofing and phishing from the enterprise domain, while automatically enhancing email security and reducing the attack surface.

Darktrace/DMARC helps to upskill businesses by providing step by step guidance and automated record suggestions provide a clear, efficient road to enforcement. It allows organizations to quickly achieve compliance with requirements from Google, Yahoo, and others, to ensure that their emails are reaching mailboxes.  

Meanwhile, Darktrace/DMARC helps to reduce the overall attack surface by providing visibility over shadow-IT and third-party vendors sending on behalf of an organization’s brand, while informing recipients when emails from their domains are sent from un-authenticated DMARC source.

Darktrace/DMARC integrates with the wider Darktrace product platform, sharing insights to help further secure your business across Email Attack Path and Attack Surface management.

結論

To learn more about the new innovations to Darktrace/Email download the solution brief here.

All of the new updates to Darktrace/Email sit within the new Darktrace ActiveAI Security Platform, creating a feedback loop between email security and the rest of the digital estate for better protection. Click to read more about the Darktrace ActiveAI Security Platform or to hear about the latest innovations to Darktrace/OT, the most comprehensive prevention, detection, and response solution purpose built for critical infrastructures.  

Learn about the intersection of cyber and AI by downloading the State of AI Cyber Security 2024 report to discover global findings that may surprise you, insights from security leaders, and recommendations for addressing today’s top challenges that you may face, too.

参考文献

[1] Internal Darktrace Research

[2] Internal Darktrace Research

[3] Essential Microsoft Office Statistics in 2024

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Carlos Gray
Product Manager

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Managing Risk Beyond CVE Scores With the Latest Innovations to Darktrace/OT

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09
Apr 2024

Identifying Cyber Risk in Industrial Organizations

Compromised OT devices in ICS and SCADA environments pose significant physical risks, even endangering lives. However, identifying CVEs in the multitude of complex OT devices is labor-intensive and time-consuming, draining valuable resources.

Even after identifying a vulnerability, implementing a patch presents its own challenges limited maintenance windows and the need for uninterrupted operations strain IT and OT teams often leading organizations to prioritize availability over security leading vulnerabilities remaining unresolved for over 5 years on average. (1)

Darktrace’s New Innovation

Darktrace is an industry leader in cybersecurity with 10+ years of experience securing OT environments where we take a fundamentally different approach using Self-Learning AI to enhance threat detection and response.

Continuing to combat the expanding threat landscape, Darktrace is excited to announce new capabilities that enable a contextualized and proactive approach to managing cyber risk at industrial organizations.

Today we launch an innovation to our OT Cybersecurity solution, Darktrace/OT, that will add a layer of proactivity, enabling a comprehensive approach to risk management. This industry leading innovation for Darktrace/OT moves beyond CVE scores to redefine vulnerability management for critical infrastructure, tackling the full breadth of risks not limited by traditional controls.  

Darktrace/OT is the only OT security solution with comprehensive Risk Management which includes:

  • Contextualized risk analysis unique to your organization
  • The most realistic evaluation and prioritization of OT risk
  • Effectively mitigate risk across your OT infrastructure, with and without patching.
  • The only OT security solution that evaluates your defenses against Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) Groups.

The most comprehensive prevention, detection, and response solution purpose built for Critical Infrastructures

Darktrace’s Self-Learning AI technology is a cutting-edge innovation that implements real time prevention, detection, response, and recovery for operational technologies and enables a fundamental shift from the traditional approach to cyber defense by learning a ‘pattern of life’ for every network, device, and user.  

Rather than relying on knowledge of past attacks, AI technology learns what is ‘normal’ for its environment, discovering previously unknown threats by detecting subtle shifts in behavior. Through identifying these unexpected anomalies, security teams can investigate novel attacks, discover blind spots, have live time visibility across all their physical and digital assets, and reduce time to detect, respond to, and triage security events.  

  • Achieve greater visibility of OT and IT devices across all levels of the Purdue Model.
  • The industry's only OT security to scale threat detection and response, with a 92% time saving from triage to recovery.  
  • The only OT focused security solution to provide bespoke Risk Management.

To learn more about how Darktrace/OT approaches unique use cases for industrial organizations visit the Darktrace/OT Webpage or join us LIVE at a city near you.

Read more below to discover how new innovations to Darktrace/OT are bringing a new, contextualized approach to Risk Management for Industrial organizations.

For more information on the entire Darktrace/OT Solution read our solution brief here.

Darktrace/OT and New Risk Management

Risk Identification

Leveraging the visibility of Darktrace/OT which identifies individual systems throughout the Purdue Model and the relationship between them, Darktrace/OT identifies high-risk CVEs and presents potential attack routes that go beyond techniques requiring a known exploit, such as misuse of legitimate services. Each attack path will have a mathematical evaluation of difficulty and impact from initial access to the high value objectives.  

Together this gives comprehensive coverage over your real and potential risks from both an attacker and known vulnerability perspectives. OT attack paths as seen here even leverage insights between the industrial and corporate communications to reveal ways threat actors may take advantage of IT-OT convergence. This revelation of imperceptible risks fills gaps in traditional risk analysis like remote access and insider threats.

Figure 1: Darktrace/OT visualizing the most critical attack paths at an organization
Figure 1: Darktrace/OT visualizing the most critical attack paths at an organization
Figure 2: A specific Attack Path identified by Darktrace/OT

Risk Prioritization

Darktrace/OT prioritizes remediations and mitigations based on difficulty and damage to your unique organization, using the established Attack Paths.

We ascertain the priorities that apply to your organization beyond pure theoretical damage answering questions like:

  • How difficult is a particular vulnerability to exploit considering the steps an attacker would require to reach it?
  • And, how significant would the impact be if it was exploited within this particular network?

This expanded approach to risk prioritization has a much more comprehensive evaluation of your organization's unique risk than has ever been possible before. Traditional approaches of ranking only known vulnerabilities with isolated scores using CVSS and exploitability metrics, often leaves gaps in IT-OT risks and is blind to legitimate service exploitation.

Figure 3: Darktrace/OT leverages its contextual understand of the organization’s network to prioritize remediation that will have the positive impact on the risk score

Darktrace provides mitigation strategies associated with each identified risk and the relevant impact it has on your overall risk posture, across all MITRE ATT&CK techniques.

What sets Darktrace apart is our ability to contextualize these mitigations within the broader business. When patching vulnerabilities directly isn’t possible, Darktrace identifies alternative actions that harden attack paths leading to critical assets. Hardening the surrounding attack path increases the difficulty and therefore reduces the likelihood and impact of a breach.

That means unpatched vulnerabilities and vulnerable devices aren’t left unprotected. This also has an added bonus, those hardening techniques work for all devices in that network segment, so apply one change, secure many.

Figure 4: Darktrace prioritizes mitigation reducing accessibility of vulnerability and the overall risk score when patches aren’t available

Communicate Board Level Risk with APT Threat Mapping

Darktrace/OT bridges theory and practice as the only security solution that maps MITRE techniques, frequently used by APT Groups, onto AI-assessed critical Attack Paths. This unique solution provides unparalleled insights including sector and location intelligence, possible operating platforms, common techniques, exploited CVEs, and the number of potential devices affected in your environment, supporting holistic risk assessment and proactive defense measures.

Ultimately, this becomes a power dashboard to communicate board level risk, using both metric based evidence and industry standard threat mapping.

結論

Darktrace/OT is part of the Darktrace ActiveAI Security Platform a native, holistic, AI-driven platform built on over ten years of AI research. It helps security teams shift to more a productive mode, finding the known and the unknown attacks and transforming the SOC with the various Darktrace products to drive efficiency gains. It does this across the whole incident lifecycle to lower risk, reduce time spent on active incidents, and drive return on investment.

Discover more about Darktrace's ever-strengthening platform with the upcoming changes coming to our Darktrace/Email product and other launch day blogs.

Join Darktrace LIVE half-day event to understand the reality versus the hype surrounding AI and how to achieve cyber resilience.

Learn about the intersection of cyber and AI by downloading the State of AI Cyber Security 2024 report to discover global findings that may surprise you, insights from security leaders, and recommendations for addressing today’s top challenges that you may face, too.  

参考文献

1. https://research-information.bris.ac.uk/ws/portalfiles/portal/313646831/Catch_Me_if_You_Can.pdf

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Mitchell Bezzina
VP, Product and Solutions Marketing
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